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History of Medicine


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#21 sunil

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Posted 16 July 2008 - 08:36 AM

Preventive Medicine (PM)
  • PM is applied to the healthy people & its main objective is prevention of disease and promotion of health.
  • Some of the triumphs of PM are:
  • Introduction of antibacterial vaccines and antisera.Morbidity and mortality from different diseases like diphtheria, tetanus, typhoid declined.
  • Introductions of antiviral vaccines e. g. Polio vaccines.

  • Discovery of different drugs have enriched Preventive Medicine. Chemoprophylaxis and mass treatment became the important tools of PM.
  • Concept of disease eradication, small pox, polio etc.
  • Development of the concept of screening tests for the diagnosis of disease in presyptomatic stage. In 1930s – serologic blood test for syphyllis and CXR for TB.

Development of Nutrition
  • Development in the field of nutrition has added a new dimension to PM.
  • The recognition of the role of different nutrients and dietary fibre emphasize the nutrition component of PM.
  • New strategies have been developed to combat against the nutritional deficiency disorders.

Sunil Kumar Joshi
WNSO - Nepal, Kathmandu

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#22 sunil

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Posted 16 July 2008 - 08:38 AM

Social medicine

  • Social medicine is the combination of medicine and sociology. It is the study of a man as a social being. Its focus is on the health of the community as a whole.
  • Social factors are very important in the aetiology of disease. Factors like poverty, cultural values, tradition, beliefs are important social factors.


Changing Concepts in Public Health
There are 4 phases in the development of the concept of public health.
  • Disease control phase (1880 - 1920).
  • Health promotional phase (1920 – 1960).
  • Social enginnering phase (1960 – 1980).
  • Health for All phase (1981 – 2000).

Sunil Kumar Joshi
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#23 sunil

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Posted 16 July 2008 - 08:41 AM

Health for All

  • In 1981, all members of WHO pledged themselves to an ambitious target to provide health for all by the year 2000.
  • Their aim was to rise the health of people to a such level that they are capable of working productively and participating actively in the social life of the community in which they live.


Health for All How?
  • One fifth of the world’s population (1.2 billion people) live in absolute poverty – surviving on US$1 or less a day.
  • Half the world’s population (3 billion people) live on US$2 or less a day.
  • There are an estimated 100 million street children worldwide and 24000 people starve to death everyday.
  • World’s 225 richest people have a combined wealth of over 1 trillion US$, equal to the annual income of 47% of world’s people.
    225 rich individuals = 2.5 billion poor people.
    Something is wrong ???
  • The assets of top 3 billionaires are more than the combined GNP of all least developed countries and their 600 million peoples.
  • Basic education for all would cost $6 billion; cosmetics in USA cost $8 billion.
  • Water and sanitation for all would cost $9 billion; $11 billion was spent on ice cream in Europe.
  • Reproductive health for all women would cost $12 billion; $12 billion was spent on perfumes in Europe and USA.
  • Basic Health and Nutrition for all people would cost $13 billion, yet,
$17 billion is spent on pet food in Europe and the USA.
$50 billion is spent on cigarettes in Europe.
$105 billion is spent on alcoholic drinks in E.
$400 billion is spent on narcotics in the world.
$780 billion is spent on military equipment in the world.

Sunil Kumar Joshi
WNSO - Nepal, Kathmandu

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#24 sunil

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Posted 16 July 2008 - 08:44 AM

Diseases of Civilization have become the diseases of Poverty.


  • Diabetes.
  • Heart Diseases.
  • Hypertension.
  • Cancer.

Sunil Kumar Joshi
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#25 sunil

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Posted 16 July 2008 - 08:45 AM

When to Achieve Health for All by 2000??


Its already 2008

Sunil Kumar Joshi
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#26 rema

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Posted 22 August 2008 - 05:30 AM

WOW,

Seems the whole history of medicine is here. This could be a huge benefit to the medical and health related students.

Cheers,

Rema




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