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Gandhiv

Member Since 31 Dec 2004
Offline Last Active Feb 10 2005 10:47 AM
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BIODIVERSITY OF WETLANDS IN TERAI REGION OF NEPAL

30 January 2005 - 04:35 AM

BIODIVERSITY OF WETLANDS IN TERAI REGION OF NEPAL:
A LITRATURE REVIEW
By: Gandhiv Kafle
Email: gandhivkafle@hotmail.com

1. Fauna
Of the 861 bird species (BCN, 2004) found in Nepal, 193(22.5%) are known to be dependent on wetlands. Of these wetland dependent species, about 187 are known to be dependent on the wetlands of the Terai. 180 species of water birds are reported from Koshi Tappu and the Koshi barrage(IUCN Nepal, 1996).The IUCN Red List of 2003 lists 12 globally threatened species that are wetland dependent, including the Critically Endangered Pink-headed Duck(Rhodonessa caryophyllacea), Endangered Greater Adjutant(Leptoptilos dubius) and Lesser Florican(Sypheotides indica) and Vulnerable Baikal Teal(Anas Formosa), Swamp Francolin(Francolinus gularis), Baer’s Pochard(Aythya baeri), Grey Pelican(Pelecanus philippensis), Sarus Crane(Grus antigone), Indian Skimmer(Rynchops albicollis), Black-necked Crane(Grus nigricollis), Lesser Adjutant(Leptoptilos javanicus) and Band-tailed Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus)(IUCN Nepal, 2004).
The oriental darter that breeds in just 13 countries is a resident breeder in Chitwan, Koshi Tappu and at Ghodaghodi Tal. The spot-billed pelican, a globally threatened bird, is found on a seasonal basis at the Koshi barrage, while the wetlands in Rupandehi and Kapilbastu provide habitat for the Sarus crane (HMGN/MFSC, 2002).
The key globally threatened mammals in Nepal that are wetland dependent include the critically endangered pygmy hog(sus salvanius), endangered gangetic river dolphin(Platanista gangetica), wild water buffalo(Bubals bubals), greater one-horned rhinoceros(Rhinoceros unicornis), elephant(Elephas maximus) and tiger(Panthera tigris), Vulnerable Indian smooth-coated otter(Lutrogale perspicillata) and common otter(Lutra lutra), Fishing Cat(Prionailurus viverrinus) and Barasingha(Cervus duvaucelii)(IUCN Nepal, 2004).
Thapa (1997) inventoried 5052 species of insects in Nepal. The vulnerable relict Himalayan dragonfly (Epiophlebia laidlawi) is the only globally threatened wetland dependant species known to occur in Nepal.
A total of 185 species of fish are found in wetlands of Nepal, out of which 8 are endemic. Shah (1995) has recorded 100 species of reptiles (24 lizards, 14 turtles, 2 crocodiles and 60 snakes) and 43 species of amphibians (one salamander, four toads and 38 frogs) in Nepal. The IUCN Red List includes nine reptilian species including the critically endangered Bengal Roof Turtle (Kachuga kachuga), endangered three striped roof turtle (Kachuga dhongoka), Elongated Tortoise (Indotestuda elongate) and Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), Vulnerable Broad-snouted crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), Crowned River Turtle (Hardella thurjii), Indian Eyed Turtle (Morenia petersi), Black pond turtle (Geoclemys hamiltonii) and Three-keeled Land Tortoise (Melanochelys tricarinata). Of the 20 endemic vertebrate animals found in Nepal, 17- including 8 fish and 9 heterofauna species- are wetland dependant (IUCN Nepal, 2004).

2. Flora
Terai wetlands host considerable floral diversity. At least 318 wetland dependent plant species have been recorded here. Twelve of these are floating species, 16 species are submergent, and 290 species are amphibious/emergent. Of the total amphibious species, 254 species are found exclusively in aquatic habitats, 11 species in riverine and ravine forest habitats, 21 species in savannah grasslands, and 42 species on anthropogenic lands. However it must be noted that a large number of species occur in more than one habitat.
IUCN Nepal (2004) classifies the vegetation (hydrophytes) of oxbow lakes of Terai into 3 categories. They are floating hydrophytes, submerged hydrophytes and emergent hydrophytes. There are over 12 species of floating hydrophytes, which provide a nesting habitat for birds such as the Pheasant-tailed Jacana, Bronze-winged jacana, and Purple Moorhen (Sankhala, 1990). 16 submerged hydrophytes occur in the oxbow lakes of the Terai which provide food for fish and a habitat for large numbers of invertebrates(especially crustaceans) and some birds such as Pintails(Anas acuta).
A total of 290 species of emergent hydrophytes have been reported from the Terai, which provide nesting habitat for bitterns, purple heron, finches; roosts for Rosy Pastor, wagtails, and purple Moorhen and vantage perch for Ringed-tailed Fishing Eagle, Purple Moorhen and kingfishers (Sankhala, 1990).

3. Aquatic invasive species
A recent assessment of aquatic invasive species by IUCN Nepal shows that the most common invasive species in the wetlands of eastern Nepal are Ipomoea carnea ssp. Fistulosa, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb and Eichhornia crassipes. They occur extensively in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its surroundings. Mikania micrantha is now seen covering the forest floor and many of the Dalbergia sissoo trees inside the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (IUCN Nepal, 2004).

Invitation to join a student's club...

15 January 2005 - 04:56 AM

Dear WNSO Chautari members,
It is an invitation for you all to join a newly formed students’ club described below.

NATURE RESEARCH AND AWARENESS CLUB NEPAL (NATURE-NEPAL)
NATURE-NEPAL IS A CLUB OF NEPALESE FORESTRY STUDENTS AIMING AT CONDUCTING RESEARCH ON FLORA, FAUNA, ENVIRONMENT, ECOSYSTEM AND HUMAN BEINGS AND IMPROVING LIVELIHOODS OF THE MARGINALIZED SECTIONS OF COMMUNITY (POOR, WOMEN, DALIT AND CHILDREN) IN THE CONTEXT OF NEPAL.
GOALS: NATURE NEPAL HAS 2 GOALS.
1. CREATING DATABASE ON FLORA, FAUNA, ENVIRONMENT AND ECOSYSTEM
2. SUSTAINING LIVELIHOOD OF MARGINALIZED SECTION OF COMUMUNITY (POOR, WOMEN, DALIT AND SECTION) IN THE CONTEXT OF NEPAL
3. INFORMATION DISSEMINATION
OBJECTIVES:
1. TO CONDUCT PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH ON FLORA, FAUNA, ENVIRONMENT AND ECOSYSTEM
2. TO CONDUCT INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES AT GRASS ROOT LEVEL TO INCREASE THE INCOME OF MARGINALIZED SECTIONS OF COMMUNITY
3. TO CONDUCT TRAINING AND AWARENESS PROGRAMMES TO ASSIST THE CAPACITY BUILDING OF MARGINALIZED SECTIONS OF COMMUNITY

MEMBERSHIP
CURRENTLY, THE VOLUNTEER MEMBERSHIP IS AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE. TO BE VOLUNTEER MEMBER OF THIS CLUB, PLEASE SEND YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS TO EMAIL: NATURE-NEPAL@NETSCAPE.NET
OTHER MEMBERSHIP WILL BE AVAILABLE SOON.

CONTACT:
MR. GANDHIV KAFLE
COORDINATOR
NATURE RESEARCH AND AWARENESS CLUB NEPAL (NATURE-NEPAL)
EMAIL: NATURE-NEPAL@NETSCAPE.NET



Effctiveness of improved grass species

02 January 2005 - 11:48 AM

Effectiveness of root and foliage system of grasses (Napier, Stylo and Molasses)
By Gandhiv Kafle

A. Napier

Pennisetum purpureum

Rooting depth

14 to 54 centimetres

Root lateral spread

19 to 73 centimetres radial from the clump

Height

95-435 cm

Ground surface area protected by foliage against direct raindrop effect

3960 to 129067 sq. cm

Mean value: 61890 sq. cm

Volume of soil bound by roots

16568 to 897053 cu. Cm

Mean value: 370980 cu cm

Spacing

Plain area: 90 cm

Sloppy area: 75% of 90 cm = 67.5 cm

Quantity of planting material required

For single row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 5, 11, 28, 55, 83 and 111 respectively.

For double row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 9, 21, 55, 109, 165 and 221 respectively.

For triple row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 14, 32, 83, 164, 248 and 332 respectively.

Shading distance

Depends upon the height of grass and position of sun

Taller the grass more is the shade effect.

Max. 433 cm shading distance is found for mean height of Napier - 250 cm, when sun makes 60 degree angle with the vertical on the top of grass.

B. Stylo

Stylosanthes guianensis

Rooting depth

24 to 103 centimetres

Root lateral spread

25 to 115 centimetres radial

Height

Foliage creeping on the ground, so no significant height

Ground surface area protected by foliage against direct raindrop effect

16293 to 112266 sq. cm

Mean value: 51516 sq. cm

Volume of soil bound by roots

15933 to 1412617 cu. Cm

Mean value: 447663 cu cm

Spacing

Plain area: 130 cm

Sloppy area: 75% of 130 cm = 97.5 cm

Quantity of planting material required

For single row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 4, 8, 19, 39, 58 and 77 respectively.

For double row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 7, 15, 37, 77, 115 and 153 respectively.

For triple row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 11, 23, 56, 116, 173 and 230 respectively.

Shade effect

Creeping foliage, so no shade effect

C. Molasses

Melinis minutiflora

Rooting depth

15 to 27 centimetres

Root lateral spread

11 to 30 centimetres radial

Height

45 to 117 cm

Ground surface area protected by foliage against direct raindrop effect

3740 to 33667 sq. cm

Mean value: 21371sq. cm

Volume of soil bound by roots

9530 to 78938 cu. Cm

Mean value: 37322 cu cm

Spacing

Plain area: 45 cm

Sloppy area: 75% of 45 cm = 33.75 cm

Quantity of planting material required

For single row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 11, 22, 55, 111, 166 and 222 respectively.

For double row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 21, 43, 109, 221, 331 and 443 respectively.

For triple row of 5m, 10m, 25m, 50, 75, 100m length, quantity of planting material is 32, 65, 164, 332, 497 and 665 respectively.

Shade effect

Max. 1.5m for mean height 86cm

Citation: Kafle, G. (2004) Evaluation of effectiveness of root and foliage system of grasses used in soil conservation in paundi khola watershed of Lamjung district Nepal. Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Pokhara Campus, pokhara, Nepal.

Waterfowl diversity of pokhara valley

02 January 2005 - 11:35 AM

WATERFOWL DIVERSITY OF POKHARA VALLEY KASKI, NEPAL
(2001-2004)
By: Gandhiv Kafle

Abstract
Waterfowl survey was conducted in nine lakes of Pokhara valley during 2001-2004 attempting to identify the waterfowls and threats to them existing on the study area. Altogether 31 species of waterfowls were recorded among which Baer's Pochard (Aythya baeri)- a globally threatened bird was found in Phewa lake as migrant. White-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) was also recorded at the bank of Seti River. Siltation, pollution and overgrowth of invasive species were the major threats to the waterfowls in the lakes of Pokhara valley. It is recommended to carry out intensive study of Baer's Pochard and White-rumped vulture in Pokhara valley. Awareness program focusing on the importance of lakes for bird conservation should be conducted in Lekhnath municipality. Local bird watching groups should be formed for better co-ordination and communication at local level.

Results
Collectively the waterfowl diversity in Pokhara valley has been mentioned in the following table.
S. N. Common name Scientific name Remarks
1. Lesser Whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica
2. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea
3. Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna
4. Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos Very few, only in Phewa lake
5. Gadwall Anas strepera
6. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
7. Common Teal Anas crecca
8. Northern Pintail Anas acuta
9. Northern Shoveler Anas clypeta
10. Red Crested Pochard Rhodonessa rufina
11. Common Pochard Aythya ferina
12. Ferruginous Pochard Aythya nyroca
13. Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri 3 in Phewa lake
14. Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula
15. Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis Only in Rupa lake
16. White Throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
17. Common Coot Fulica atra Most abundant
18. Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio
19. Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
20. Greater Painted Snipe Rostratula benghalensis
21. Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis
22. Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
23. Bronze Winged Jacana Metopidius indicus
24. Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
25. Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger
26. Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia
27. Little Egret Egretta garzetta
28. Great Egret Casmerodius albus
29. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
30. Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii
31. Red-Wattled Lapwing Vavellus indicus

Additional sightings:
Three white-rumped vultures (Gyps bengalensis) were observed at the back of Banpale forest of institute of forestry Pokhara along the fertile cultivated land neat the riverbank of Seti River. They were observed on the live branches of Bombax ceiba. The Seti River dips much with rocky slopes on the both sides, where the potential habitats of white rumped vultures occur.
Conclusions and recommendations
The lakes of Pokhara valley provide good habitat of the waterfowls. Despite the small area, the majority of birds were observed on Khaste, Deepang, Rupa, Gunde, Maidi and Nandi lakes.
Globally threatened Bayer's' pochard (Aythta baeri) was observed in Phewa lake in total number three. So a detailed survey of this species is essential.
White rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) was found along the Seti riverbank. So an intensive study is recommended to find out its population status, nesting sites and threats in Pokhara valley. Siltation, pollution and overgrowth of invasive species are the major threats. So proper agro-forestry systems and community plantations should be encouraged on the uphill sides and catchment areas of lakes.
Moreover awareness program focussing on the importance of lakes for bird conservation should be conducted in Lekhnath municipality. Widening this recommendation, similar awareness programme should be conducted in Ghodaghodi Lake and Jagadispuir reservoir (unprotected Ramsar sites) because of existence of similar types of threats. Local bird watching groups should be formed at local level to create better awareness, we-feeling and co-ordination.

Citation: Kafle, G. (2004). Waterfowl Diversity of Pokhara Valley, Kaski, Nepal (2001-2004). Nature Research and Training Club Nepal (Nature-Nepal), Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal.